xxxxxxxxxxxHandbook of Surface and Colloid Chemistryxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx 2nd Edition xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxby K. S. B i r d i ( EDITOR ) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxISBN 08493-10792- Pages 765 Hardcover (CRC Press 2003)xx
Surface chemistry and colloid chemistry are important in a large number of areas from
food and pharmaceutical industries to metal-oxide preparation for fuel-cell applications
and high temperature superconductivity. Each chapter in this book is authored by an expert
in a relevant branch of surface or colloid chemistry. The scope of the book includes interfacial
film structures for this film formation and emulsion formation, contact angle and adsorption
studies to characterise solid surfaces and the impact of scanning tunneling microscope and
atomic force microscope on surface science.
Chapter1: Introduction to Surface and Colloidal Chemistry ( By K S Birdi:):
This is a brief introductory chapter of just 3 pages, the notable items include
a table listing typical colloidal systems such as aerosols, forms, emulsions etc.
and a bibliography of 17 references.
Chapter 2 : Hydrogen Bonding in Solutions: The equations-of-State-Approach -(by C Panayiotou):
The chapter begins with an introduction to intermolecular hydrogen bonding and follows with
statistical mechanical treatment of hydrogen bonding in aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherms
and surface tension data are given for model systems of various alcohols in water. Solubility
parameters are also given for various van-der Waals fluids. Rubber swelling, gels and hydro-gels
are then discussed. Intra molecular hydrogen-bonding is then discussed with with some-emphasis
on alkoxy alcohols. Hydrogen bonding cooperativity (systems having doner and acceptor hydrogen bonds)
are then discussed. ( This mechanism is also know as the Grottus mechanism and responsible for
the high conductivity of hydrated protons. ) Here a rigorous statistical mechanical treatment is given.
Vapour pressure vs temperature relationship is calculated for water and compared with experimental values.
The chapter ends with a bibliography of 64 reference, Appendix 2a (The equation of state framework,
the quasi-chemical-lattice framework, and a bibliography of 20 references for the appendices),
Appendix 2B (an algorithm for find the number of hydrogen bonds ) and Appendix 2c
(Implications of the equations for relative absorption.)
Chapter3: Surface Tension and Interfacial Tension in Liquids -(by K Birdi):
The chapter includes an introduction to the thermodynamics of surface tension,
the heat of surface formation and evaporation, the effects of temperature and
pressure on the surface tension of liquids, the surface tension of liquid mixtures,
the solubility of water in organic liquids and organic liquids in water, and the
surface tension of oil-water systems. The chapter ends with a bibliography of 99 references.
Chapter 4: Surface Waves and Dissipative Solitons sustained by the Maragoni effect -(by M Vignes-Adler and M Verlade):
The Maragoni effect transforms physiochemical energy into flow whose form and evolution depends on
the sign of the thermal and solutal gradient and the transport properties of the adjacent fluids.
This chapter provides an introduction the the maragoni effect, it then describes nonlinear wave
properties and the maragoni effect. The remainder of the chapter described experimental
results including evidence of solitonic effects and quasi-elastic and inelastic collisions.
The chapter ends with a bibliography of 20 references.
Chap 5: Chemical Physics of Colloidal Systems and Interfaces -(by P Kralchevsky, K Danov and N Denkov):
The main topics discussed include surface tension of surfactant solutions, surface forces, hydrodynamic
interactions and dispersions, kinetics of coagulation, mechanisms of antifoaming, electrokinetic phenomena
in colloids including electrophoresis and optical properties of dispersions and micellar solutions.
The chapter ends with a bibliography of 1085 references.
Chapter6: Solubilization in Aqueous Surfactant Systems -(by H Hoiland and A Blokhus):
The major topics covered include partitioning equilibrium, experimental methods including solubility,
vapour pressure, physical properties of surfactants separation methods and experimental results.
For the latter over 15 tables and 4 graphs of experimental results for partition coefficients for
alcohol's and alkandiols in water are presented. The chapter ends with a bibliography of 238 references.
Chapter 7: Colloid Systems and Interfaces – Stability of Dispersions through Polymer and
Surface and Adsorption -(by P Somasundaran, B Markovic, X Yu and S Krishnakumar): The chapter
begins with a consideration of colloidal forces which include van der Waals forces,
hydrophobic force, steric and bonding forces, hydration/solvation forces and capillary
condensation forces. Double layer interactions are well explained and illustrated diagrammatically.
Experimental assessment of dispersion stability is next considered followed by dispersion in the
absence of dispersion agent. For the latter data is presented for alumina particles in solvents of
various polarities. Adsorption and its effect on dispersion is next considered, experimental results
are given for alumina dispersed in a solution at pH 6.5. Surfactant adsorption on its effect on
dispersion properties for aqueous and non-aqueous media are described with results for alumina on
silica and various alcohols. Adsorption of polymers and its effect on dispersion properties is
considered next. The notable experimental data presented include silica suspensions with PEO
(polyethelyne oxide) and flocculation of alumina particles with PAA. The chapter ends with a
bibliography of 35 references.
Chapter 8: Controlled Synthesis and Processing of Ceramic Oxides – A Molecular Approach -(by B Rosenholm and M Linden):
The chapter begins with a consideration of the thermodynamics of the aqueous-electrolyte ion equilibrium.
Data is given for the ionic strength of cations and anions of normal valencies. Precipitation-dissolution
and ion-solvation equilibria are then discussed. Complexation reactions and ion-association and hydration
are next described. Mixed solvents and non-aqueous systems. Nucleation and growth of sol particles is next
described data is presented for Na2O::Al2O3:H2O system. Peptization of sols is next considered. Data is
presented for the surface charge density of aqueous electrolyte sols of alumina and silica and functions
of pH. Controlled gelation of sols is next described additives of n-alcohols, n-amines and carboxylates
are described. The chapter ends with a list of abbreviations and a bibliography of 110 references.
Chapter9: Solubilization of Surfactant Systems -(by C Miller): The major topics covered include a
simple model for solubilization , experimental measurements of solubilization. For the latter,
data is presented for solubilization parameters for micro-emulsions of sulphonates. alcohols,
oil and brine. Theories of solubilization in micellar solution is next considered and solubilization
by intermediate phase formation. For the latter data is presented ( graphically and video-frame micrograph)
of intermediate lamellar phase formed in CFx-Water-n-tetradecane system. The chapter ends with a bibliography
of 90 references.
Chapter10: Cohesion Energy Parameters Applied to Surface Phenomena -(by C Hansen): T
he major topics include solubility calculations (data s presented for solubility sphere of Cholesterol
solubility and Rhodamin FB). Controlled absorption and self-assembly is next discussed. The chapter
ends with a bibliography of 28 references.
Chapter 11: Self-Assembly of Monodispersed Spherical Colloids in Complex Structures -(by Y Xia, B Gates, Y Yin and Y Sun):
The major presentations include a TEM of 300nm silica spheres and 500nm polystyrene spheres. Other
topics include well defined aggregates of spherical colloids (including description of a fluidic
cell used to assemble spherical colloids), and SEM images of polystyrene and silica spherical. Opaline
(i.e. 3D periodic ) lattices of spherical lattices is next discussed.; the major topics described include
crystallization by confined self-assembly, control of thickness of Opaline lattices and control of density
and structure of defects and crystalline orientation. The chapter ends with a bibliography of 129 references.
Chapter 12: Thermally Sensitive Latex Particles: Preparation Characterization and Application in the Biomedical field -(by A Elaissari).
The major topics include synthesis of reactive thermally sensitive latex particles, colloidal characterization, and
immobilization of biomolecules. The chapter ends with a bibliography of 27 references.
Chapter 13: Nucleic Acid-Dependent Enzymic Reactions in Conventional Liposomes and Giant Vesicles -(by T Oberholzer).
The major topics described include enzymic reactions in conventional liposomes, enzymic reactions in giant vesicles.
For the latter two figures and a graph are presented illustrating m RNA synthesis by T7 RNA polymerase in giant vesicles.
The chapter ends with a bibliography of 28 references.
Chapter 14: Scattering and Adsorption of Light by Particles and Aggregates -(by C Sorenson):
The major topics covered include scattering by small particles including polarization, Rayleigh absorption
cross-section and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans scattering. The discussion then moved to Mie scattering (scattering
by spheres of arbitrary sizes) and fractal aggregates. The chapter ends with appendices on scattering cross-sections,
the scattering wave-vector and a bibliography of 43 references.
Chapter 15: Application of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Colloid and Surface Chemistry -(by K Birdi and D Vu):
The discussion begins with a description of STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope).
It then progresses to lipid like molecules on solids and biopolymer structures by STM and AFM. Crystal structures
determined by STM and FM is next described followed by STM and AFM studies under fluids. The chapter ends with a
bibliography of 120 references.
Chapter 16; Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions -(by G Kontogeorgis): The major topics discussed included methods
for estimating the density of polymers, the solubility parameter of polymers, models on polymer thermodynamics,
cubic equations of state for polymers, the SAFT equation of state, and a discussion on the various thermodynamic
models. The chapter ends with a bibliography of 203 references.